Saturday, May 23, 2020
Reducing the National Deficit Many United States citizens are unaware of the countrys current financial state. Many assume that one of the worlds wealthiest countries could never be in debt. This is untrue however, and, in fact, the country with the greatest income per capita is in major debt. This study will examine possible solutions to reducing the United States national budget deficit. Understanding the National Deficit The amount of money that the United States government owes as of October 17, 2004 at 03:48:52 pm GMT was $7,435,016,998.21. The debt has increased by an average of $1.7 billion per day since September 30, 2003! From a more individual perspective, currently the United States population is roughly aroundÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The debt skyrocketed to an astounding $279 billion by the year 1946. When World War II ended in 1949, the debt grew at a slow and steady pace for the next 20 years. When the Vietnam War began in the 1960s the debt accelerated sharply. Thanks to the growth of television and news media, growth of the deficit was widely publicized. For the first time, the American people were given access to what was going on with the nations debt. When the Gulf War began the early 1990s, the national debt reached a trillion dollars for the first time. By the end of the Gulf War, the government decided to make amendments to fix the continuing problem with the deficit. Despite those promises to reduce spending, the debt is currently at it highest point ever. Who is the Nation Indebted to? The United States borrows money from individuals that have bought Treasury Bills, Notes, Bonds, and United States Savings Bonds. The U.S. government also borrows money by issuing Treasury securities. These securities finance expenditures that exceed its receipts, and are legal under the authority of the Second Liberty Bond Act. The governments primary source of income is through taxes paid by its citizens. Supposedly, money is spent on programs that government officials consider necessary to ensure the best quality of life for all (or at least the majority) of the nations citizens. The combination of these amounts is what makes up the nationalShow MoreRelatedFederal Budget Deficit And The National Debt1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages These two graphs are dealing with the federal budget deficit and the national debt and just how diverse they are from the time differences with both begging approximately in the 2001Ã¢â¬â¢s and making their way to 2013. Different types of numbers, but the relationship between the Federal budget deficit and the national debt is by how the Deficit deals with taking the difference of what the U.S. government gets in from taxes or other revenues calling these receipts, but on top of that the amount of moneyRead MoreFederal Deficit And The National Debt1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesyears of the federal deficit and the national debt, as well as examination their relationship. This paper also looks at how the deficit is created and dealt with, along with what happens to different areas of the economy when the deficitÃ¢â¬â¢s size changes. Lastly this paper covers who owns the national debt, how these people are paid off, and the interest rate of the debt. Federal Budget Deficit with a sprinkle if National Debt (1, 2, 3) The federal budget deficit and the national debt are two differentRead MoreFiscal Policy1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFiscal Policy The people of the United States are by the fiscal policies. Team C will address the how and why the U. S. budget deficits, budget surpluses, and debt affect different individuals and institutions. There is a wide array of individuals affected by fiscal policy, which include tax payers, future Social Security and Medicaid users. The unemployed individuals and University of Phoenix students will be affected by fiscal policy. The U.S. financial reputation, an exporter, and importerRead MoreNational Debt : The Hamilton Proposal1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNicholas Kasper Professor Badri Jawad Economics 201 August 10, 2014 National Debt: the Hamilton Proposal. Ever since the 1970s, increased government spending has lead to a $17.6 trillion debt. The government can alter this debt by the use of fiscal policy. Politicians are given two ways to do this, either increase taxes or reduce government spending. The Hamilton project proposes 15 different ways to reduce the deficit, which are broken down into four sections; social safety nets, tax reform, newRead MoreCase Studies1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages As per the treaty the economy deficit level of the country was already predefined for those countries who were willing to enter euro zone. But Greece entered the European union with a budget deficit that exceeded the allowed threshold. The Greek government borrowed heavily and went on spending after the adoption of Euro as their currency. Instead of reducing the spending and borrowing heavily it adopted creative accounting practices to hide its true budget deficit. It was Goldman Sachs that helpedRead MoreCurrent Account Deficit1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa good one. Buffett is betting that American trade deficit will not be restored and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of borrowing from abroad to pay for the current goods and services will not stop. The USA borrows from abroad to finance its trade deficit, on top of that the USA government spends more money than it takes from taxes. The budget deficit increases the gap between countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national savings and national income and and also widens the deficit in the current account by necessitating the countryRead MoreDiscuss the Ways in Which the Government May Use Fiscal Policy to Help the Economy Grow Out of a Recession1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesindirect taxation and the budget balance can be used Ã¢â¬Å"counter-cyclicallyÃ¢â¬ to help smooth out some of the volatility of national output particularly when the economy has experienced an external shock and is in a recession. The Keynesian school argues that fiscal policy can have powerful effects on demand, output and emplo yment when the economy is operating below full capacity national output, and where there is a need to provide a demand-stimulus. Monetarist economists believe that government spendingRead MoreExpanding Social Security Spending In recent decades, entitlement programs have constituted a600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesexpenditures were $1.3 trillion, 8.4% of the $16.3 trillion GNP (SSA.gov). There has been an issue in the White House of either opposing the cut in Social Security spending or advocating for a hike in payments. Expanding Social Security instead of reducing it would benefit seniors, especially considering AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s struggling middle class and that there are more impoverished people than ever before. Despite the retirement income crisis, Social Security should be expanded, not reduced. In Arthur DelaneyÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreBalanced Budget Amendment1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLegislative and the Executive Branches have done nothing to lessen this deficit. One idea that has been discussed not only in Congress, but on prime time news networks is the passage of a Balanced Budget Amendment. A Balance Budget Amendment (as recently seen in House Bill HJR2, 28 NOV 2011) would require that Congress balance its budget every fiscal year unless a three-fifths majority of both houses approved of maintaining a deficit. In a CNN Poll, conducted by ORC International, 74% of AmericansRead MoreEvaluate the case for cutting public expenditure rather than raising taxes as a means of reducing fiscal deficits.890 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe case for cutting public expenditure rather than raising taxes as a means of reducing fiscal deficits.  A fiscal deficit is when a governments total expenditures exceed the tax revenues that it generates. A budget deficit can be cut by either reducing public expenditure or raising taxes. In this essay, I am going to analyse the benefits and costs of increasing tax rates to reduce fiscal deficits instead of cutting government expenditure. First of all, if the government
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The Civil War was a fight to preserve the Union which was the United States of America. From the conception of the Constitution, there were two differing opinions on the role of the federal government. Federalists believed that the federal government and the executive needed to maintain their power in order to ensure the survival of the union. On the other hand, anti-federalists held that states should retain much of their sovereignty within the new nation. Basically, they believed that each state should have the right to determine the laws within its own borders and should not be forced to follow the mandates of the federal government unless absolutely necessary. As time passed the rights of the states would often collide with various actions the federal government was taking. Arguments arose over taxation, tariffs, internal improvements, the military, and of course slavery. Northern Versus Southern Interests Increasingly, the Northern states squared off against the Southern states. One of the main reasons for this was that the economic interests of north and south were opposed to each other. The South was largely comprised of small and large plantations that grew crops such as cotton which were labor intensive. The North, on the other hand, was more of a manufacturing center, using raw materials to create finished goods. Slavery had been abolished in the north but continued in the south due to the need for inexpensive labor and the ingrained culture of the plantation era. As new states were added to the United States, compromises had to be reached concerning whether they would be admitted as slave or as free states. The fear of both groups was for the other to gain an unequal amount of power. If more slave states existed, for example, then they would garner more power in the nation. The Compromise of 1850 - Precursor to the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 was created to help stave off open conflict between the two sides. Among the five parts of the Compromise were two rather controversial acts. First Kansas and Nebraska were given the ability to decide for themselves whether they wanted to be slave or free. While Nebraska was decidedly a free state from the start, pro and anti-slavery forces traveled to Kansas to try and influence the decision. Open fighting broke out in the territory causing it to be known as Bleeding Kansas. Its fate would not be decided until 1861 when it would enter the union as a free state. The second controversial act was the Fugitive Slave Act which gave slave owners great latitude in traveling north to capture any escaped slaves. This act was hugely unpopular with both abolitionists and more moderate anti-slavery forces in the north. Abraham Lincolns Election Leads to Secession By 1860 the conflict between northern and southern interests had grown so strong that when Abraham Lincoln was elected president South Carolina became the first state to break offÃ from the Union and form its own country. Ten more states would follow with secession: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. On February 9, 1861, the Confederate States of America was formed with Jefferson Davis as its president. The Civil War Begins Abraham LincolnÃ was inaugurated as president in March 1861. On April 12, Confederate forces led by General P.T. Beauregard openedÃ fire on Fort Sumter whichÃ was a federally held fort inÃ South Carolina. This began the American Civil War. TheÃ Civil WarÃ lasted from 1861 until 1865. During this time, over 600,000 soldiers representing both sides were killed either by battle deaths or disease. Many, many more were wounded with estimates of more than 1/10th of all soldiers being wounded. Both the north and the south experienced major victories and defeats. However, by September 1864 with the taking of Atlanta, the North had gained the upper hand and the war would officially end on April 9, 1865. The Aftermath of the Civil War The beginning of the end for the Confederacy was with General Robert E. Lees unconditional surrender at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865.Ã Confederate General Robert E. LeeÃ surrendered theÃ Army of Northern VirginiaÃ to Union GeneralÃ Ulysses S. Grant. However, skirmishes and small battles continued to occur until the last general, Native American Stand Watie, surrendered on June 23, 1865. PresidentÃ Abraham LincolnÃ wanted to institute a liberal system of Reconstructing the South. However, his vision ofÃ ReconstructionÃ was not to become reality afterÃ Abraham Lincolns assassinationÃ on April 14, 1865. TheÃ Radical RepublicansÃ wanted to deal harshly with the South. Military rule was instituted untilÃ Rutherford B. HayesÃ officially ended Reconstruction in 1876. The Civil War was a watershed event in the United States. The individual states after years of reconstruction would end up joined together in a stronger union. No longer would questionsÃ concerning secessionÃ or nullification be argued by individual states. Most importantly, the war officially ended slavery.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The purpose of this essay is to explore social work theory and practice. The essay is based on a scenario of a father (Mathew), who after many years of caring for his disabled son (David), and having suffered a stroke attack an year ago, finds he is struggling to care for himself or the son. In relation to working with the elderly, the essay will discuss the roles of a social worker, the practice of empowerment, possible ethical dilemmas and an anti-oppressive practice. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Work and Empowerment Assignment or any similar topic only for you Order Now The type of agency chosen for this essay is Learning Disability Partnership (LPD) in Cambridgeshire. LPD is an organisation, which includes multi-disciplinary teams of Social Care Services and Health professionals. LPD dedicates services which help learning disabled people lead normal lives and life in abundance. Fully aware of the strain and stress brought on by caring, LPD tries to provide services which help people with learning disabilities, and their carers, to cope with these pressures. The diversity of social work roles in this organisation includes advocacy, direct change agent and executive. These roles can be used singly, or as a combination of two roles. The role of advocacy is about people speaking up for themselves directly or indirectly (Beckett, 2006: 9). Despite having communication problems, and assumning a positive mental capacity rationale on David, a social worker may advocate for David by providing specialist communication equipment that enable him to directly communicate without undue influence by his father. Similarly, in the best interests of David and Matthew advocacy is met through negotiations for services and resources within the agency or through multi-disiplinary teams, this is a mixed role of a negotiator and a co-ordinator. The social worker is obliged to assess the needs of Matthew and David for community care services and implement services accordingly, role of a care manager. Simultaneously, eligibility criteria are checked (role of a researcher) after which costs and services availability are checked before commissioning resources. For effectiveness, a social worker must have sufficient knowledge, skills and values to conduct good professional practice. Empowerment means Ã¢â¬Å"working in a way aimed at increasing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of power and control over their livesÃ¢â¬ (Beckett, 2006:126). The British Association of Social Workers (BASW) includes in their definition of social work the promotion of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ social changeÃ¢â¬ ¦ and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Ã¢â¬ (Thompson 2001) cites empowerment as an ongoing Ã¢â¬Å"processÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"goalÃ¢â¬ that takes a long time. Cooper (2000:15) cites the four major principles of empowerment as Ã¢â¬Å"entitlement which include legislation, rights and policies; social model which looks at social, economic and culture; needs-led assessment which looks at wants in life; and promotion of choice and control which moves institutionalisation to independent livingÃ¢â¬ ¦ In view of this topicÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity I shall address each principle briefly. In terms of entitlement law, rights and policies offer guidance and support, good example been the 1990 Community Care Act and the Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 which places a duty and requirement on local authority to provide services, resources and funding for services and resources for the needy people in the community (Brammer, 2003:304). To empower David and Matthew rights to live in own home entitlement services like home carer provide personal care and help with shopping. David may also be entitled to practical home assistance to improve on safety and mobility. However, despite been eligible for service, due to limited resources services may not be easily implemented by local authority. The main objective of needÃ¢â¬â¢s led assessment is to concentrate more on individual needs and preferences rather than the services available. Needs determine the level of assessment required based mainly on empowerment and choice (Parker, Bradley, 2007). Contrary, defining the meaning of Ã¢â¬ËneedÃ¢â¬â¢ inevitably leads to procedural bias and restriction of services due to financial constraints. If the service user satisfies the local authorities eligibility criteria then they have a legal duty to provide the necessary assistance. For example needs for both Matthew and David vary and might change over time. MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective might be need of rehabilitation and home help to enhance his physical well being whilst DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s needs might be gradual introduction to socialisation and communication needs. Choices for independence targets services for persons at risk for institutionalisation. The Kantanian approach of individualisation (rights and respect for David and Matthew to be treated with personal differences) and user-self-determination (liberty to make informed choices or decisions) promote choice and independence (Banks, 2003:31). Direct Payments, supports self-directed care. This enables David and Matthew to recruit, organise and pay for their own services, enabling them to exercise choice and control over their lives. The campaign for real choice by guardian newspaper quotes that Ã¢â¬Å"the growth of direct payments is causing for celebration, alongside pilot schemes for individual budgets which give disabled people more independenceÃ¢â¬ (www. guardian. co. uk). Social model is concerned with experiences of vulnerable people at a risk of oppression and social devaluation, seeking to reserve vulnerability. Medical terms have been used to normalise people, for examples labelling David as severe learning disabled and Matthew as suffering from stroke is disabling in itself, and leads to total loss of rights. However these terms are used to check threshold criteria for assessment of their needs enabling empowerment. Consequently, on meeting the criteria, local authority must facilities for services, which at this point must be pointed out that they may not necessarily be needs led as intended, but resource led due to limited resources. Simultaneously, this leads to David and Matthew depending on the state welfare instead of encouraging independence and active participation (Oliver, 1996:25). Similarly, choices encourage empowerment. David expressing his wish to stay at home proves that his mental capacity is able to receive, retain and make decisions. (Adams, Dominelli and Payne 2002:196) states capacity and ability to act on decisions brings about equality, however, this supports choice making more than services that best suits David. Possible ethical dilemmas encountered include: Choice and capacity: Because of communication problems with Matthew his dad may have to translate his thoughts expressed. Dilemma occurs as dadÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretations may not be accurate with the MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s needs; this may lead to a social worker implementing wrong services. Similarly wrong services may also be offered if in the past Matthew has had little or no experience of choosing. Care and control imposed due to limited resources, social workers are obligated to evaluate David and Matthew against other service users who are in need. Following the utilitarian approach, the dilemma here is whose needs outweigh the other? On what orders would these needs be prioritised? If David and MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s priority are of low, then resources will be allocated to those in most significant risk. Consequently lead to two immoral issues: (a) Societal distrust in social work profession as most people fear being selected for sacrifice despite their needs, (b) DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s and MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s health might get worse as they have to wait a long time for care packages to be implemented. Empowerment process shifts power away from social workers and given to service users. This reliance to create the conditions for empowerment and identify eligible for empowerment would appear to contradict this intended shift of power. Conflict of interest arises on who the primary client is. Once a referral has been made, a social worker will purposely be going in to assess whoever is in need. However it soon comes to light that both the service user and the carer are in need, torn between two people in need a social worker therefore has to work with the whole family creating conflict of interest. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 states that: Ã¢â¬Å"a person must be assumed to have capacity unless it is established that he lacks capacityÃ¢â¬ . In line with this, dilemma occurs on how to assess capacity and to what extend would capacity be measurable? A social worker is obliged to make a value judgmental call, and if the wrong move is made then the consequences lie with the social worker. To overcome these dilemmas awareness training and anti discriminatory practice would give a balance. From learnt theories it is evident that some social workers might have limited resources and lack of awareness. If a social worker is not aware or informed of these factors, then they will not be able to achieve empowering practice and that they will find their practice may revolve more around issues of empowerment and control are evidently forgetting service users and carers self-determination. Conclusively, Social workers are employed in varied social settings necessitating diversity of social work roles. Empowerment enriches and enhances human suffering, therefore should always be linked with anti-discrimination. The topic of empowerment is very broad, it not only requires technical competence but also qualities of integrity, genuiness and self-awareness. How to cite Social Work and Empowerment Assignment, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: What Is The Important Challenge For All Industrialized? Answer: Introducation In 21st Century, the most important challenge for all industrialized countries is to ensure that their workers are leading healthy and stress free life. In other words, work should not result in illness to the workers or any injured provision must not be there. It must be noted that poor workplace situations not only adversely affects the workers, but they also affect the the workplace as well as community. There are number of injuries or illnesses which are not recognized by employers, and these minor issues results in major consequences. In New South Wales (NSW), all workers are protected by occupational health and safety laws (OHS) such as full-time workers, part-time workers, permanent workers, and temporary and casual workers. These laws are passed by parliament of NSW. Under OHS laws, duty is imposed on employer to ensure health and safety of their workers and employees while they are working, and also of those who are not their employees at the place of work. However, Work cover NSW is responsible to manage the State's workplace safety, injury management, and compensation system of workers. This work cover also has power to prosecute the employers who fail to fulfill this duty. Acts of parliament: the most important Act which covers all the matters related to health and safety of workers in NSW is the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000, and this Act came into force from September 2001. It must be noted that this Act states the various requirements related to health, safety and welfare of the workers in NSW, and this act also covers self-employed people as well as employers and employees. However, this act is repealed by Work Health and Safety Act 2011. Code of practice: the main aim of this code is to provide practically guidance for the purpose of achieving standard related to health, safety, and welfare in particular area of work. These codes are published by Government Gazette. There are number of times when Codes of practice are considered in regulations, and in these situations they have the same legal force as the regulations itself. Otherwise, Codes of practice should be followed unless any alternative course of action is introduced for the purpose of achieving better result in this area. Code of Practice does not replace any laws stated by WHS, but these codes are used to understand the obligations stated by Act in easier way. However, these codes are used by inspector while he issuing notice related to improvement or prohibition. It must be noted that codes of practice under the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, are admissible in Court proceedings. Courts consider the Court of practice as evidence to identify the hazard, risk or control, and they are rely on it for the purpose of determining the practices which are reasonable in nature in those situations to which this code relates. Codes of practice are not mandatory in nature and it is recognized by government that there are number of better ways to achieving the required work health and safety outcomes. Therefore, it is considered that many other methods can also be used for achieving the higher or equal standards related health and safety of workers. Therefore it is clear that these codes are only considered as guidance material related to safe work in Australia for achieving the standards under WHS laws (Safe work NSW, n.d.). Work Health and Safety Act 2011 No 10: this Act is introduced for the purpose of securing the health, safety and welfare of workers at workplace, and it is also introduced to repeal the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000. Some main objects of this Act are to provide framework which is balanced and nationally consistent for the purpose of ensuring the health and safety of workers, and these objects are stated below: Provide protection to workers and other persons also against any harm relates to their health, safety, and welfare by minimizing the risk rose from work, and any specified types of substances or plant. This Act provides fair and effective representation related to workplace, and also ensures consultation, co-operation and solving any issue related to health and safety workers. This Act plays important role in both union and employer organizations for the purpose of ensuring health and safety practices at workplace, and it also assists the persons in conducting businesses or undertakings to achieve work environment which is healthier and safer. This Act promotes the advice promotion, information, education, and training related to health and safety of workers. Through this Act government ensures secure and effective compliance of provisions of this Act and enforcement measures (Safe work NSW, n.d.; Work Health and Safety Act 2011 ). These acts establish both compensation system for workers as well as workplace injury management system, and it provides: Treatment which is prompt in nature and related to injuries at workplace. It also manages these injuries in effective and proactive manner. These acts provide rehabilitation related to medical and vocational for these injuries. It also supports the workers by income during their incapacity. The system also creates compensation system for workers which must be fair, affordable and financially-viable, and it is necessary that this compensation system ensures contributions from their employers and they are commensurate with the risk faced by them in their industry. It must be noted that WHS laws requires that employers and other parties at workplace must consult and cooperate for the purpose of managing risk at workplace, and ensure health and safety of their workers and other also who might have risk from the work. In NSW, principles of WHS law consists of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, and these principles are supported by Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011. However, this Act is based on the model of WHS legislation which is developed by the Safe Work Australia after consulting with the states and territories, and it applies in all the workplaces of NSW including mines. In NSW, two regulators are present which regulates the principles of WHS that is NSW Department of Industry, Resources and Energy which regulates the mining industry, and Safe Work NSW regulates the other workplace which is formally known as WorkCover. Health and safety duties: this Act broadened the range of people who have a duty of care towards the other people, and additionally it includes duty of employers and business undertakings to manage the risk conducting from their business and this duty is also imposed on those parties who are contributing in the successful management of workplace risks such designers, manufacturers, importers, and equipment suppliers. It must be noted that duty holders must be practicable and try to minimize the risk related to health and life of employees (Lexis-Nexis). PCBUs duties: usually PCBUs duties are similar to the duties of employers under the previous legislation such as PCBU are under obligation to minimize the risk related to health and safety of workers including employees, contractors, and any other person related to work. It is necessary to note that if any two persons share the same duties then they must consult, co-operate, and co-ordinate with each other activities for the purpose of ensuring better results. Officers duty: officer of the company is the person who makes or participates in decision makings, and decisions made by him affects substantially whole or substantial part of the business. Therefore, officer of the company is under obligation to exercise due diligence while taking their decisions and also ensures that organizations are compliance with the law. Workers Duty: this Act not only imposed duties on employers of the organization, but also imposed duties on workers, contractors, and other volunteers. They are under obligation to ensure their own safety and health by complying with the reasonable instructions or policies and procedures which are related to their safety (MJA, n.d.). Explosives Act: this Act is applicable on employer and businesses which are indulged in manufacturing, imports, stores, transports, supplies, handles or used any explosive substance or dangerous substance. For them it is necessary that they complied with this act for the purpose of ensuring health and safety of your workers (Safe work NSW, n.d.). Rural Workers Accommodation Act: This act is applicable if employer has workers who need to live at the work premises for more than 24 hours such as at agricultural or pastoral premises, then in such case employer is liable to provide suitable accommodation for them (Safe work NSW, n.d.). Penalties and fines in case of breach: In NSW, Work Cover has power to initiate inspections, investigations, and compliance audits, and it also has power to issue letter of caution which warns the organization that WHS breach has been detected. Inspectors also has power to issue notice related to improvement or prohibition if they believe that organization or employers are breaching the provisions of the Act or might breach the provisions of the Act. Improvement notice requires that recipient of the notice to remedy the contravention and its causes, and also prevent the contraventions from occurring or reoccurring. However, this notice may set out the methods through which employer or business organization can remedy the contraventions and this letter also state the deadline (Safe Work, n.d.). Inspector can also issue prohibition notice in case that inspector believes that any situation at workplace cause serious WHS risk, and require immediate action for same. This notice is generally applied on employer till the inspector is satisfied that the hazard or risk is rectified or removed, and till that time performance related to that work will be prohibited. A prohibition notice states the methods for remedying that situation, and in case employer does not complying with the same then regulator can take reasonable action to remedy that situation after giving reasonable notice. However, non-disturbance notice can also be issued by inspector for the purpose of preventing disturbance at site on which such notified incident occurred. However, it must be noted that compliance of these requirements gets the support of court injunctions. Fines: following maximum penalties are provided by WHS Act in case of breach, and these penalties are divided on the basis of category of offense complied by employer or business: Category 1 offence- breach under category 1 is considered as most serious breach, and in this it is considered that person at default put the other person to the risk of death or injury. In this category penalty for corporations is $ 3 million, for individual and public officers it is $600,000 and/or five years imprisonment, and for individual workers it is $300,000 and/or five years imprisonment. Category 2 offence- breaches under category 2 is considered as person failed to comply with the duty related to health and safety which put other person at risk of death. In this category penalty for corporations is $ 1.5 million, for individual and public officers it is $300,000, and for individual workers it is $150,000. Category 3 offence- breaches under category 3 is considered as person failed to comply with the duty related to health and safety. In this category penalty for corporations is $ 500000, for individual and public officers it is $100,000, and for individual workers it is $ 50,000 (Workplace OHS, n.d.). References: Safe work NSW. Codes of Practice. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/codes-of-practice. Safe work NSW. Rural Workers Accommodation Act. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/rural-workers-accommodation-act. Safe work NSW. Work Health and Safety Act 2011. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/work-health-and-safety-legislation. Safe work NSW. Explosives Act. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/explosives-act. Safe work NSW. Workers Compensation Legislation. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/workers-compensation-legislation. Work Health And Safety Act 2011 - sect 3. Work Health and Safety Act 2011 No 10. Workplace OHS. WHS penalties NSW. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://workplaceohs.com.au/legislation/nsw-legislation/penalties-nsw. MJA. Workplace safety goes national. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.mja.com.au/careers/196/6/workplace-safety-goes-national. Lexis-Nexis. Employment and Work Health and Safety Law Collection. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.lexisnexis.com.au/en-au/products/employment-and-whs.page. Safe Work. Compliance policy and prosecution guidelines. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/50160/compliance_policy_prosecution_guidelines_2012_4437.p
Monday, March 23, 2020
An audit by the IRS was done on Mr. John Gemstone, a wealthy client. A few deductions were questioned, such as; $10,000 loss on beach rental, $20,000 charitable contribution, $15,000 loss for operation of cattle breeding ranch. There was a concern that the battle breeding ranch is not a legitimate business, which is more like a hobby. My supervisor was asked that I represent Mr. Gemstone in his discussions with the IRS. In order to get elaborate more on Mr. Gemstones deductions, we would need more specifics: Ã¢â¬ ¢For the charitable contribution painting, we feel that the painting may be overvalued. Was there an expert that actually came out and viewed the painting to give a professional and honest value of $20,000? Where is the proof? Can we go based on your word? If I said, the Mona Lisa painting was $1; would you believe that in fact the painting is valued at $1? What record do you have to provide to us that the painting is valued at ,000? Ã¢â¬ ¢Now, Mr. We will write a custom essay sample on ACC 497 Case Study 1-49 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Gemstone claims that he has a business of cattle breeding. Are you registered as an individual to be breeding cattle? Where are you documents for your land that you are in fact breeding these cattle on your property? How are you keeping track of the money that you have invested and the revenue coming in from breeding these cattle? Do you have a permit showing that these cattle can be breed on your property? Ã¢â¬ ¢In the loss deduction of the rental of your beach cottage? What happened with the beach cottage? What do you have to prove that this can be included in your tax return? Tax research is the search for the best defensibly correct solution to a problem involving either a completed transaction or a proposed transaction, according to Federal Taxation (2011). We must determine the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢Determine the facts Ã¢â¬ ¢Identify the issues Ã¢â¬ ¢Identify and Analyze the tax law sources Ã¢â¬ ¢Evaluate non-tax implications Ã¢â¬ ¢Solve the problem Ã¢â¬ ¢Then communicate the findings with the client. In Mr. Gemstones case, stated in Section 280A, a loss is not a deductible if the taxpayer used the residence, such as the beach house, for personal purposes for longer or greater of 14 days or 10% of the number of days the unit was rented at a fair rental value. Property is deemed to be used by the taxpayer for personal purposes on any days on which it is definition of family members. According to the IRS, an individual can deduct a charitable contribution made to, or for the use of, any of the following organizations that otherwise are qualified under section 170(c) of the IRS codes. However, there are limitations of deductions. The 50% limitations apply to all public charities, all private operating foundations (code POF), certain private foundations that distribute the contributions they receive to public charities and private operations foundations within 2 ? months following the year receipt and lastly to certain private foundations the contributions to which are pooled in a common fund and the income and corpus of which are paid to public charities.
Friday, March 6, 2020
HereÃ¢â¬â¢s Exactly What to Do Before a Test SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking the SAT, the ACT, an SAT Subject Test, the PSAT, an AP exam, a final, or any other test for high school, it's essential to know what to do beforehand so you can give yourself the best shot at getting a high score. In this guide, we introduce our top tips for what to do before a test, from how to study for a test the night before to how to relax before a test using deep breathing. Feature Image: biologycorner/Flickr What to Do the Day Before a Test Your test is tomorrow, but you have no idea what to do or whether you should even do anything at all. Should you study more? Stay up all night cramming? Give up? (Probably not!) Below, we give you our top tips on what to do the night before your test, including how to study for a test the night before and how to ensure you've got all the materials you'll need for your test. #1: Lightly Review Any Content YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Still Struggling With The day before a test isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the day to do all your studying, but a little light review can be helpful. Otherwise, treat this day mostly as a day to relax. Get together your textbooks, notes, and other study materials and then find a quiet room to study in, such as your bedroom or the local library. As you review, take time to focus on any last-minute, pesky areas youÃ¢â¬â¢re still having trouble with. These could be a handful of SAT vocab words or a few math formulas, for example. Try to spend no more than an hour or two reviewing for your test. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to spend all day studying as itÃ¢â¬â¢ll wear you out the day of your test. Plus, youÃ¢â¬â¢re unlikely to remember every piece of information you cram in such a short amount of time! The most important point to remember is this: donÃ¢â¬â¢t use this day (or night) as an intense study session. Assuming you've already done the bulk of your studying beforehand (especially if youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking the SAT or ACT), you should feel pretty prepared by this point and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t need an entire day to review. Even if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t studied as much as you wished you had, avoid cramming since youÃ¢â¬â¢re unlikely to remember everything you study in one lengthy, exhausting session. Instead, focus on the most difficult concepts and try to get those down pat. #2: Get Together Everything YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Need for the Test Preparation is the key to success- as well as the key to not feeling ridiculously stressed out the morning of your test! Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a Saturday morning test (such as the SAT/ACT) or have to get to school for your test, be sure to prepare all the materials youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need for your test the night before. Get your backpack together with everything youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need for your test and for your classes (if taking the test on a school day). Materials you might need to bring for your test include the following: Sharpened #2 pencils Erasers A handheld pencil sharpener A calculator Getting all these items together the day before will make you feel less stressed out the morning of your test, especially if youÃ¢â¬â¢re prone to pushing the snooze button one too many times! Ah, yes. Looks like the test center is right next to a creepy alley. #3: Know Where the Test Is and How to Get There If your test is being held at a test center or a school different from your own, itÃ¢â¬â¢s critical you know exactly where it is and how you plan to get there. Ideally, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have planned this out long before your test date, but if not make sure you figure it out, by latest, the day before your test. If you're taking the SAT, the ACT, or an SAT Subject Test, you can find your test center information by looking at your admission ticket or by logging on to your College Board or ACT account. If you're taking a test at your own school, such as a midterm, a final, an AP exam, or the PSAT, know which classroom you'll be heading to and when. For most midterms and finals, you'll take your test in the same classroom as your class. However, some students might need to take certain exams at a different school if their own school doesn't offer that particular test. (This often happens with the PSAT and AP exams.) If you're in this situation, confirm which school and classroom you need to go to for your test. I suggest calling the school you're taking your test at ahead of time so you can double-check the time and location. But how should you get to your test center or school? If taking public transportation, it's a good idea to come up with a backup plan in case your bus or train comes late or fails to show up at all. For example, you could talk with a friend about having him or her drive you to your test location if your main choice of transportation falls through on test day. If you plan to drive yourself, make sure you know where you can park and how much itÃ¢â¬â¢ll cost (if anything). Consider traffic, too. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re leaving at a particularly busy time of day (even Saturdays can get busy depending on where youÃ¢â¬â¢re headed!), give yourself extra time to get to your test location. When it comes to tests, remember the mantra: itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to be extremely early than even a tad bit late. Generally, aim to get to your test center at least 30 minutes before your test so youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have time to check in, get seated, and calm your nerves! #4: Skip the All-Nighter and Get a Good NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Sleep As mentioned above, you shouldn't study a bunch the day before your test- and you should definitely skip the all-nighter! But why is pulling an all-nighter so bad for you? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s see what science has to say. According to a 2014 study conducted by Ghent University and KU Leuven in Belgium, students who slept at least seven hours the night before a test typically scored higher than those who got only six hours of sleep. Other studies have found that sacrificing sleep for studying is counterproductive and more sleep is strongly correlated with better grades and a higher GPA. As you can see, getting enough sleep isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just about feeling better on test day- it ensures that your brain will be better equipped to remember the information you've learned. So what does all of this mean for you? In general, try to aim for at least seven hours of sleep the night before your test. Obviously, what exact amount of sleep feels good can vary depending on your own body and sleeping habits. While some students might need a solid eight or nine hours of sleep, others might do just fine on six hours. Regardless, the point is to get as much sleep as you need to feel well rested and prepared for your test. #5: Set an Alarm (or Two or Three) No matter when your test is- whether it's during a regular school day or on a Saturday morning- it's never a bad idea to set a few alarms (just in case you snooze through your first one!). Try not to set more than three alarms, and keep them at most 10-15 minutes apart so that you don't end up accidentally oversleeping by too long. If you're especially worried about getting up, ask someone you know to check that you're awake by a certain time. This way you can greatly reduce the risk of being late for your test. You can get a family member to check on you in your room in the morning or have a friend call or text you. The correct way to dry your hair the morning of a big test. What to Do the Day of a Test YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve woken up (likely after hitting the snooze button a couple of times) and are ready to get out and take the test. What can you do to make sure you do your best on it? Here are our top tips for what to do the day of a test, including what to eat before a test and why you should use the bathroom before leaving home. #6: Eat a Healthy, Filling Breakfast A satisfying breakfast can give you ample energy for your test, particularly if youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking a long one like the SAT or ACT. According to a 2013 study on the effects of breakfast on academic performance, "Eating breakfast has a positive effect on children's cognitive performance, particularly in the domains of memory and attention." Since youÃ¢â¬â¢ll definitely need these two skills in order to do well on a test, we can see that eating a full breakfast is essential to making you feel energized on test day and thus getting the score you want. You should also try to eat healthily. A study conducted by the University of Alberta discovered that healthier diets were linked to better test scores and higher grades. Therefore, donÃ¢â¬â¢t just aim for a filling breakfast but a healthy one, too! Good brain foods to eat before a test include the following: Whole grains (oatmeal, granola, quinoa, muffins, etc.) Fresh fruit (bananas, apples, pears, etc.) Fresh vegetables (broccoli, celery, carrots, etc.) Even if youÃ¢â¬â¢re nervous about your test, donÃ¢â¬â¢t skip breakfast! Chances are, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll feel worse and far less energized if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat anything at all. #7: Confirm YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve Got Everything You Need You should have gotten all your materials together the day before the test, but we advise checking once more right before you leave that youÃ¢â¬â¢re not forgetting anything important. Before you head out, make sure you have everything you'll need for your test (and school, too, if you're taking the test on a school day). Here are some things you might need to bring: Sharpened #2 pencils Erasers A handheld pencil sharpener A calculator Water Snacks Other materials for classes such as textbooks, notebooks, homework, etc. Lunch Money (for lunch, public transportation, etc.) Your driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license (if driving yourself or if photo ID is required for your test) A light sweater or jacket that's easily removable Try to avoid bringing your cell phone to your test. Any ringing or vibrating during the test could affect your scores. For example, if you were taking the SAT or ACT and your phone went off during it, your scores would be automatically canceled. This is why it's usually better to leave your phone at home. However, if you must bring your phone or feel weird not taking it with you, be absolutely sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve turned it off before your test begins. Finally, be sure to wear appropriate attire to your test. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s hot or cold outside, remember that the school/test center might feel warmer or colder inside. Therefore, try to bring a sweater or light jacket you can remove or put on in case the room gets hot or chilly. #8: Go to the Bathroom While this might seem obvious, make sure to use the restroom before you leave for school or your test. Doing this reduces your chances of having to find a restroom at your school/test center and having to use the restroom during the test (which can take critical time away from answering questions). If your test is later in the school day, try to use the restroom in-between class periods, ideally right before you take your test. If you don't have time to use the bathroom before your test, don't despair- some tests might offer breaks. If your test has a break, feel free to use the restroom then. Both the SAT and ACT, for example, offer several breaks for test takers, the longest of which is 10 minutes. This should be enough time for you to go to the bathroom and return to your testing room. That said, most breaks during tests are pretty short. Therefore, by using the restroom before your test, you'll be able to use your break to do other things such as drink water, stretch, or eat a snack. I'm sure she's just using her phone to take detailed notes, right? RIGHT? What to Do Right Before a Test YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve arrived at school or your test center and are now only a few minutes away from taking your test. What can you do at this point to ensure you get the score you want? Read on to learn how to relax before a test and why you should turn off your cell phone. #9: Turn Off Your Cell Phone If you brought a cell phone, turn it off and put it in your backpack or give it to a test proctor. SAT/ACT test centers typically have different rules for what to do with cell phones, so make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re abiding by your test center's policies. If you're not sure what to do with your phone, ask a teacher or test proctor. Remember, if your phone rings, vibrates, or makes any sound during your test, you could end up forfeiting your test scores. This for sure happens on the SAT/ACT. If you're taking a final, midterm, or other school test, however, consequences will vary depending on your school's policies. In addition, don't simply put your phone on silent since alarms and other sounds can still go off! #10: Stay Calm Perhaps most importantly, take this short time right before your test to calm your nerves and reduce your anxiety. Yes, youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking a test. Yes, itÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably be a little scary. Yes, you might not feel totally prepared for it. But you can do it! To help relax yourself, take a few deep breaths as you sit at your desk. In particular, focus on deep breathing. This technique is known to quell anxiety and make you feel more relaxed. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t think about everything youÃ¢â¬â¢ve studied up until this point- just focus on feeling confident and at ease. If possible, try to stretch your arms and legs a little, too. This will help prepare your body for the upcoming immobility and get your blood flowing. #: Be Positive and Do Your Best Part of doing well on tests is having the confidence that you can do this. So take a few moments to remind yourself that you will do your best on this test and hopefully get the score you want. Also, know that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not the end of the world if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t do as well as you hoped you would. With the SAT/ACT, you can always retake the test. Or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking an AP exam or SAT Subject Test, even if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t get as high a score as your colleges would like, you can still give yourself a solid chance of admission by improving other parts of your college applications. Tests are important, yes, but they're not usually the only make-or-break factor! Do your best and don't let a low score negatively impact your goals. Key Takeaways: What to Do Before a Test Most tests- especially the SAT, the ACT, the PSAT, AP exams, SAT Subject Tests, midterms, and finals- are undeniably intimidating. But as long as you have a long-term study plan and know exactly what to do before a test, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to feel confident and get a high score on it. Above, we gave you essential tips for what to do before a test. Here they are again, briefly: The Day Before the Test Lightly review any content youÃ¢â¬â¢re still struggling with Get together everything youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need for the test Know where the test is and how to get there Skip the all-nighter and get a good nightÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep Set an alarm (or two or three) The Day of the Test Eat a healthy, filling breakfast Confirm youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got everything you need Go to the bathroom Immediately Before a Test Turn off your cell phone Stay calm Be positive and do your best Now get out there and ace that test! Imagine this is your teacher grading your test! WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Need help coming up with a foolproof study plan? Check out our sample SAT plans and our sample ACT schedules to help you get started. Running out of time before your test? Don't sweat it. With our 10-day cram plans for the SAT and ACT, you'll be able to get a great score, guaranteed! And if you're taking the PSAT instead, take a look at our expert last-minute cram tips. Looking for more study tips? Then read our guide to prepping for AP tests as well as our guide to prepping for SAT Subject Tests. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Are Liberty and Security Mutually Exclusive, or Mutually Supportive - Essay Example A careful analysis of theory and practice of security, however, indicates that security is not opposed to liberty, and in fact augments it when used judiciously, but that there is a fine tipping point after which security begins to impinge on liberty rather than support it. The question as to the role and purpose of the government has been a central question to political philosophers for centuries now. These philosophers often work under to distinct precepts that were originally envisioned by Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: that people were born free in their Ã¢â¬Å"state of natureÃ¢â¬ (Hobbes 32), but that they are universally found to be under some sort of governance, which curtails their freedom. The fundamental question is then, why do people give up their freedoms to another power? An explanation, the social contract, was developed by John Locke Ã¢â¬â he states that absolute liberty is not in fact a good thing, because it would mean liberty to steal from, and otherwise harm one another, so people give up their own liberty for security (Dunn 75). ... e of the legitimate rolls of government was the regulation of morality: it was supposed that this was a form of security, and that without a patrician government to look after its population people would devolve into immoral behavior, and thus would harm themselves and the state. John Stuart Mill countered this thinking in his seminal On Liberty, in which he argued that it was not a legitimate role of government to regulate morality (Mill 374). This shifted thinking permanently on the role of government in the preservation of liberty. Both of these trains of thought are in fact correct. It cannot be denied that governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s granting and increasing security does, to a particular point, improve liberty: a well policed street will ensure that people have the ability to walk down it unmolested, and a well regulated market ensures the liberty of everyone playing by the same economic rules. Yet it also cannot be denied that governments sometimes go too far in curtailing liberty at t he cost of security, by, for instance, monitoring people without their knowledge, or policing ideology (Rovine 42). So where does the tipping point occur? GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s enacting of security begins to unduly curtail liberty when actions taken in the name of security modify peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior more than the threat or fear of a lack of security would do. For instance, locking everyone in a solitary cell would certainly lower the murder rate, but this would modify peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior much more than the fear of murder does. A well regulated police force, on the other hand, increases liberty by countering the behavior modification that fear of murder by a completely un-policed society would have. Security and liberty are often seen as each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s antithesis, and for good reason. Governments have