Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Locantro Essay Ancient rarities are stays, for example, apparatuses adornments and other human made articles Culture people groups extraordinary lifestyle Hominid an individual from an organic gathering including individuals and related species that walk Paleolithic Age an ancient period that kept going from around 2,500,000 to 8000 B. C Neolithic Age an ancient period that began 8000 Technology the manners by which ppl apply information instruments and developments to address there issues Homo sapiens Homo sapiens is the logical name for the human species.Homo is the human class, which likewise incorporates Neanderthals and numerous other terminated species. Section 1 In 1992, Gen Suwa, a scientist from Japan disclosures in east Africa one of the most seasoned primate teeth at any point found Over the following two years, extra remains were revealed like arm bones and parts of a skull and jaw that had a place with 17 ppl Just 45 miles away in 1974 Donald C. Johanson and Tom Gray revealed a 3. 2 mu lti year old Skelton. Instrument utilizing devices was probably the soonest part of culture that ppl formedThe Stone Age name used to idem Homo habilis lived during first of Paleolithic period Oldest primates known to make apparatuses Lived In Africa from around 2. 5 to 1. 5 million Language Instead of simply making sounds and motions toward show feeling and course Homo erectus may have been conversing with one another around 500,000 years prior Laungage was one of humanitys most noteworthy achievements What advantages did language do to humankind Made it for ppl to cooperate Enabled ppl to trade thoughts regarding the worldProvided a route for ppl to mingle proof of early Homo sapiens returns similarly as 200,000 years back Neanderthals no doubt the principal Homo sapiens Neanderthals remained around 5,5 tall their cerebrums were somewhat greater than todays advanced people Most lived in little gatherings of 35 to 50 ppl Were wanderers therefor didn't live in one spot permately Liv ed in caverns or over from bluffs Wore substantial apparel produced using creature skins to remain warm and ensured
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Psychophysics Essay Sam Vaknins Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web SitesIt is difficult to thoroughly demonstrate or prove the presence of a Soul, a mind. Various clarifications have been until now offered:That what we, people, call a spirit is the way that we experience the activities of our mind (reflection experienced). This oftenleads to vast relapses. That the spirit is an epiphenomenon, the product aftereffect of an equipment multifaceted nature (similarly as temperature, volume andpressure are the epiphenomena of an enormous number of gas atoms). That the spirit does exist and that it is particular from the body in substance (or absence of it), in structure (or absence of it) and in the arrangement of lawsthat it complies (profound as opposed to physical). The supporters of this camp say that relationship isn't causation. At the end of the day, the electrochemical action in the cerebrum, which relates to mental wonders doesn't imply that it IS the psychological marvels. Mental wonders do have mind (equipment) connects however these associates need not be mistaken for the psychological marvels themselves. All things considered, not many will debate the solid association among body and soul. The clairvoyant action was ascribed to the heart, the liver, even to certain organs. These days it is ascribed to the mind, obviously with better reasons. Since the body is a physical article, subject to physical laws, it follows that at any rate the association between the two (body and soul) must comply with the laws of material science. Another inquiry is what is the money utilized by the two in their correspondence. Physical powers are intervened by subatomic particles. What serves to intervene among body and soul ?Language could be the medium and the interceding cash. It has both an inside, clairvoyant portrayal and a target, outside one. It fills in as an extension between our inward feelings and cognizance and the outside, physical world. It starts nearly non-truly (a negligible idea) and has significant physical effects and impacts. It has quantum viewpoints joined with traditional determinism. We recommend that what we call the Subconscious and the Pre-Conscious (Threshold of Consciousness) are nevertheless Fields of Potentials sorted out in Lattices. Possibilities of what?To speak to real factors (inside and outside the same), we use language. Language is by all accounts the main thing ready to reliably connect our interior world with our physical environmental factors. Along these lines, the possibilities should be Lingual Energy Potentials. At the point when one of the possibilities is accused of Lingual Energy in Freuds language, when cathexis happens it turns into a Structure. The particles of the Structures, their most essential units, are the Clusters. The Cluster comprises a full cross cut of the spirit : impulse, influence and insight. It is hologramic and fractalic in that it reflects however just a section the entirety. It is accused of the lingual vitality which made it in any case. The group is profoundly precarious (energized) and its lingual vitality must be released. This lingual vitality can be discharged distinctly in specific degrees of vitality (excitation) as per an Exclusion Principle. This is suggestive of the principles overseeing the universe of subatomic particles. The arrival of the lingual vitality is Freuds hostile to cathexis. The lingual vitality being what it will be it very well may be released distinctly as language components (its excitation levels are lingual). Put in an unexpected way: the group will lose vitality to nature (=to the spirit) looking like language (pictures, words, affiliations). The safeguard instruments, known to us from old style brain research projection, recognizable proof, projective ID, relapse, refusal, transformation response, uprooting, justification, intellectualization, sublimation, restraint, hindrance, uneasiness and a large group of other protective responses are nevertheless sentences in the language (legitimate strings or hypotheses). Projection, for example, is the sentence : It isn't my quality it is his characteristic. A few instruments the prominent models are legitimization and intellectualization utilize language. Though the degrees of excitation (lingual release) are discrete (exceptionally explicit) the released vitality is constrained to certain, particular, language portrayal. These are the Allowed Representations. They are the main ones permitted (or empowered, to get from PCs) in the Allowed Levels of Excitation. This is the purpose behind the standards of Disguise (cover) and Substitution. An excitation is accomplished distinctly through explicit (visual or verbal) portrayals (the Allowed Representations). In the event that two possibilities involve the equivalent Representational levels they will be compatible. Along these lines, one lingual potential will have the option to accept the job of another. Each group can be depicted by its own capacity (Eigenfunktion). This clarifies the difference among people and among the intra-clairvoyant portrayals. At the point when a bunch is acknowledged when its vitality has been released as a permitted lingual portrayal it returns to the condition of a lingual potential. This is a steady, bi-directional stream : from potential to bunch and from group to potential. The underlying wellspring of vitality, as we stated, is the thing that we ingested along with lingual portrayals all things considered. Lingual portrayals ARE vitality and they are along these lines absorbed by us. An exogenic occasion, for this design, is likewise a language component (comprising of a visual, three dimensional portrayal). In this way, everything around us mixes us with vitality which is changed over into permitted portrayals. Then again, language possibilities are accused of vitality, become groups, release the lingual vitality through a permitted portrayal of the particular lingual vitality that they have and become possibilities again. At the point when a potential appears that is, the point at which it turns into a bunch in the wake of being accused of lingual vitality a Potential Singularity remains where once the emerged potential existed. The individual encounters this peculiarity as a tension and does his most extreme to change over the bunch once more into a potential. This exertion is the Repression Defense Mechanism. Along these lines, the vitality utilized during constraint is likewise the lingual kind. At the point when the vitality with which the group is charged is released, at the permitted degrees of portrayal (in other words, through the permitted lingual portrayals), the bunch is turned around into a potential. This, in actuality, is suppression. The nervousness means a condition of faction in the field of possibilities. It, thusly, merits the name :Signal Anxiety, utilized in the expert writing. The sign tension assigns not just an opening in the field of possibilities yet in addition a Conflict. Why ?The appearance of the potential (its change into a bunch) makes an adjustment in the Language Field. Such a change can prompt a contention with a social standard, for example, or with a standard, an individual worth, or with a restraint all being lingual portrayals. Such a contention apparently disregards the states of the field and prompts uneasiness and to restraint. Freuds Id, Ego and Superego are presently effectively conspicuous as different conditions of the language field. The Id speaks to all the possibilities in the field. It is the standard by which the possibilities are accused of lingual vitality. Id is, at the end of the day, a field condition which directs the potential in each purpose of the field. The Ego is the communication between the language field and the world. This cooperation now and then accept the type of a cognizant discourse. The Superego is the collaboration between the language field and the portrayals of the world in the language field (in other words, the outcomes of constraint). Every one of the three are, consequently, Activation Modes. Each demonstration of restraint leaves follows afterward. The field is changed by the demonstration of restraint and, along these lines, protects the data identified with it. The total of all suppressions makes a portrayal of the world (both interior and outer) in the field. This is the Superego, the practical example of the field of possibilities (the inner mind or the administrative framework). The field plays steady host to emerging possibilities (=the interruption of substance upon cognizance), excitation of permitted lingual (=representational) levels (=allowed portrayals) and acknowledgment of structures (their inversion to a condition of being possibilities). It is reality which figures out which excitation and portrayal levels are the permitted ones. The complex of these procedures is Consciousness and every one of these capacities together comprise the Ego or the Administrative System. The Ego is the utilitarian method of cognizance. The exercises actually are directed both by the field of possibilities and by the appearing structures yet the emergence of a structure is certainly not an essential for activity. The Id is a wave work, the condition depicting the condition of the field. It subtleties the area of the possibilities that can emerge into structures. It additionally records the uneasiness delivering potential singularities into which a structure can be acknowledged and return to being a potential. An Association is the remaking of all the permitted degrees of excitation (=the permitted portrayals of the lingual vitality) of a particular structure. Various structures will have basic excitation levels at different occasions. When structures are acknowledged and therefore become possibilities they experience the excitation level regular to them and to different structures. Along these lines they modify the field (stamp it) in an indistinguishable way. At the end of the day : the field will recall comparably those structures which go through a typical excitation level in an indistinguishable way. Whenever that the potential emerges and gets one of these structures the various twin structures will be accused of an indistinguishable lingual vitality. They will all be evoked all together. Another point: when a s
Monday, August 10, 2020
Book Riots Deals of the Day for July 28th, 2017 Weve got a $200 Powells gift card to give away! Go here to enter, or just click the image below: Todays Featured Deals Fates and Furies by Lauren Groff for $3.99. Get it here or just click the cover image below: Let the Great World Spin by Colum McCann for $2.99. Get it here or just click the cover image below: In Case You Missed Yesterdays Most Popular Deal: Girl Through Glass by Sari Wilson for $1.99. Get it here or just click the cover image below: Previous daily deals that are still active (as of this writing at least). Get em while theyre hot. Rich and Pretty by Rumann Alam for $1.99. Horrorstor by Grady Hendrix for $1.99 The Small Backs of Children by Lydia Luknavitch for $1.99. I Thought It Was Just Me (But It Isnt) by Brene Brown for $1.99. The Forty Rules of Love by Elif Shafak for $1.99. Surfacing by Margaret Atwood for $1.99. Ancillary Justice by Ann Leckie for $2.99. 10% Happier by Dan Harris for $1.99. Kindred by Octavia Butler for $1.99. The Fifth Season by N.K. Jemisin for $2.99. How to Start a Fire by Lisa Lutz for $2.99. The Passage by Justin Cronin for $1.99. Night Film by Marisha Pessl for $1.99. Shogun by James Clavell for $1.99. The Notorious RGB for $1.99. The Valley of Amazement by Amy Tan for $1.99. The Girl with All the Gifts by M.R. Carey for $1.99. Graceling by Kristin Cashore for $1.99. The Rules of Civility by Amor Towles for $3.99. Ayiti by Roxane Gay for $1.99 Dawn by Octavia E. Butler for $1.99. The Looking Glass War by John Le Carre for $1.99. The Complete Stories by Clarice Lispector for $1.99. Too Like the Lightning by Ada Palmer for $2.99. Mothers Sons by Colm Toibin for $1.99. The Birthday of the World and Other Stories by Ursula K. Le Guin for $1.99. Galileos Daughter by Dava Sobel for $1.99. Brown Girl, Dreaming by Jacqueline Woodson for $1.99. An Edible History of Humanity by Tom Standage for $1.99. Tell the Wolves Im Home by Carol Rifka Brunt for $1.99. Zen in the Art of Writing by Ray Bradbury for $1.99. After Henry by Joan Didion for $1.13. The Song of Achilles by Madeline Miller for $1.99. The Toughest Indian in the World by Sherman Alexie for $1.99. The Last Samurai by Helen DeWitt for $1.99. The Last Policeman by Ben H. Winters for $1.99. Notes of a Native Son by James Baldwin for $1.99. Labyrinths by Jose Luis Borges for $1.99. All the Birds in the Sky by Charlie Jane Anders for $2.99. A Study in Scarlet Women by Sherry Thomas for $1.99.. The Inexplicable Logic of My Life by Benjamin Alire SÃ¡enz for $2.99. We, The Drowned by Carsten Jenson for $2.99 Big Fish by Daniel Wallace for $1.99. The Terracotta Bride by Zen Cho for $1.40. The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley for $2.99. The Girl at Midnight by Melissa Grey for $1.99. Cloudsplitter by Russell Banks for $1.99. Queenpin by Megan Abbott for $0.99. The Good Lord Bird by James McBride for $4.99. The Comet Seekers by Helen Sedgwick for $2.99 Frog Music by Emma Donoghue for $1.99 Bitch Planet, Vol 1 for $3.99. Monstress, Vol 1 by Liu Takeda for $3.99 Paper Girls, Vol 1. by Vaughn, Chiang, Wilson for $3.99. Labyrinth Lost by Zoraida Cordova for $1.99 The Wicked + The Divine Volume 1 for $3.99 The Inheritance Trilogy by N.K. Jemisin for $9.99 The Price of Salt by Patricia Highsmith for $0.99 We Should All Be Feminists by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie for $2.99 Sign up for our Book Deals newsletter and get up to 80% off books you actually want to read.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Reducing the National Deficit Many United States citizens are unaware of the countrys current financial state. Many assume that one of the worlds wealthiest countries could never be in debt. This is untrue however, and, in fact, the country with the greatest income per capita is in major debt. This study will examine possible solutions to reducing the United States national budget deficit. Understanding the National Deficit The amount of money that the United States government owes as of October 17, 2004 at 03:48:52 pm GMT was $7,435,016,998.21. The debt has increased by an average of $1.7 billion per day since September 30, 2003! From a more individual perspective, currently the United States population is roughly aroundÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The debt skyrocketed to an astounding $279 billion by the year 1946. When World War II ended in 1949, the debt grew at a slow and steady pace for the next 20 years. When the Vietnam War began in the 1960s the debt accelerated sharply. Thanks to the growth of television and news media, growth of the deficit was widely publicized. For the first time, the American people were given access to what was going on with the nations debt. When the Gulf War began the early 1990s, the national debt reached a trillion dollars for the first time. By the end of the Gulf War, the government decided to make amendments to fix the continuing problem with the deficit. Despite those promises to reduce spending, the debt is currently at it highest point ever. Who is the Nation Indebted to? The United States borrows money from individuals that have bought Treasury Bills, Notes, Bonds, and United States Savings Bonds. The U.S. government also borrows money by issuing Treasury securities. These securities finance expenditures that exceed its receipts, and are legal under the authority of the Second Liberty Bond Act. The governments primary source of income is through taxes paid by its citizens. Supposedly, money is spent on programs that government officials consider necessary to ensure the best quality of life for all (or at least the majority) of the nations citizens. The combination of these amounts is what makes up the nationalShow MoreRelatedFederal Budget Deficit And The National Debt1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages These two graphs are dealing with the federal budget deficit and the national debt and just how diverse they are from the time differences with both begging approximately in the 2001Ã¢â¬â¢s and making their way to 2013. Different types of numbers, but the relationship between the Federal budget deficit and the national debt is by how the Deficit deals with taking the difference of what the U.S. government gets in from taxes or other revenues calling these receipts, but on top of that the amount of moneyRead MoreFederal Deficit And The National Debt1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesyears of the federal deficit and the national debt, as well as examination their relationship. This paper also looks at how the deficit is created and dealt with, along with what happens to different areas of the economy when the deficitÃ¢â¬â¢s size changes. Lastly this paper covers who owns the national debt, how these people are paid off, and the interest rate of the debt. Federal Budget Deficit with a sprinkle if National Debt (1, 2, 3) The federal budget deficit and the national debt are two differentRead MoreFiscal Policy1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFiscal Policy The people of the United States are by the fiscal policies. Team C will address the how and why the U. S. budget deficits, budget surpluses, and debt affect different individuals and institutions. There is a wide array of individuals affected by fiscal policy, which include tax payers, future Social Security and Medicaid users. The unemployed individuals and University of Phoenix students will be affected by fiscal policy. The U.S. financial reputation, an exporter, and importerRead MoreNational Debt : The Hamilton Proposal1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNicholas Kasper Professor Badri Jawad Economics 201 August 10, 2014 National Debt: the Hamilton Proposal. Ever since the 1970s, increased government spending has lead to a $17.6 trillion debt. The government can alter this debt by the use of fiscal policy. Politicians are given two ways to do this, either increase taxes or reduce government spending. The Hamilton project proposes 15 different ways to reduce the deficit, which are broken down into four sections; social safety nets, tax reform, newRead MoreCase Studies1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages As per the treaty the economy deficit level of the country was already predefined for those countries who were willing to enter euro zone. But Greece entered the European union with a budget deficit that exceeded the allowed threshold. The Greek government borrowed heavily and went on spending after the adoption of Euro as their currency. Instead of reducing the spending and borrowing heavily it adopted creative accounting practices to hide its true budget deficit. It was Goldman Sachs that helpedRead MoreCurrent Account Deficit1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa good one. Buffett is betting that American trade deficit will not be restored and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of borrowing from abroad to pay for the current goods and services will not stop. The USA borrows from abroad to finance its trade deficit, on top of that the USA government spends more money than it takes from taxes. The budget deficit increases the gap between countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national savings and national income and and also widens the deficit in the current account by necessitating the countryRead MoreDiscuss the Ways in Which the Government May Use Fiscal Policy to Help the Economy Grow Out of a Recession1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesindirect taxation and the budget balance can be used Ã¢â¬Å"counter-cyclicallyÃ¢â¬ to help smooth out some of the volatility of national output particularly when the economy has experienced an external shock and is in a recession. The Keynesian school argues that fiscal policy can have powerful effects on demand, output and emplo yment when the economy is operating below full capacity national output, and where there is a need to provide a demand-stimulus. Monetarist economists believe that government spendingRead MoreExpanding Social Security Spending In recent decades, entitlement programs have constituted a600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesexpenditures were $1.3 trillion, 8.4% of the $16.3 trillion GNP (SSA.gov). There has been an issue in the White House of either opposing the cut in Social Security spending or advocating for a hike in payments. Expanding Social Security instead of reducing it would benefit seniors, especially considering AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s struggling middle class and that there are more impoverished people than ever before. Despite the retirement income crisis, Social Security should be expanded, not reduced. In Arthur DelaneyÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreBalanced Budget Amendment1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLegislative and the Executive Branches have done nothing to lessen this deficit. One idea that has been discussed not only in Congress, but on prime time news networks is the passage of a Balanced Budget Amendment. A Balance Budget Amendment (as recently seen in House Bill HJR2, 28 NOV 2011) would require that Congress balance its budget every fiscal year unless a three-fifths majority of both houses approved of maintaining a deficit. In a CNN Poll, conducted by ORC International, 74% of AmericansRead MoreEvaluate the case for cutting public expenditure rather than raising taxes as a means of reducing fiscal deficits.890 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe case for cutting public expenditure rather than raising taxes as a means of reducing fiscal deficits.  A fiscal deficit is when a governments total expenditures exceed the tax revenues that it generates. A budget deficit can be cut by either reducing public expenditure or raising taxes. In this essay, I am going to analyse the benefits and costs of increasing tax rates to reduce fiscal deficits instead of cutting government expenditure. First of all, if the government
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The Civil War was a fight to preserve the Union which was the United States of America. From the conception of the Constitution, there were two differing opinions on the role of the federal government. Federalists believed that the federal government and the executive needed to maintain their power in order to ensure the survival of the union. On the other hand, anti-federalists held that states should retain much of their sovereignty within the new nation. Basically, they believed that each state should have the right to determine the laws within its own borders and should not be forced to follow the mandates of the federal government unless absolutely necessary. As time passed the rights of the states would often collide with various actions the federal government was taking. Arguments arose over taxation, tariffs, internal improvements, the military, and of course slavery. Northern Versus Southern Interests Increasingly, the Northern states squared off against the Southern states. One of the main reasons for this was that the economic interests of north and south were opposed to each other. The South was largely comprised of small and large plantations that grew crops such as cotton which were labor intensive. The North, on the other hand, was more of a manufacturing center, using raw materials to create finished goods. Slavery had been abolished in the north but continued in the south due to the need for inexpensive labor and the ingrained culture of the plantation era. As new states were added to the United States, compromises had to be reached concerning whether they would be admitted as slave or as free states. The fear of both groups was for the other to gain an unequal amount of power. If more slave states existed, for example, then they would garner more power in the nation. The Compromise of 1850 - Precursor to the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 was created to help stave off open conflict between the two sides. Among the five parts of the Compromise were two rather controversial acts. First Kansas and Nebraska were given the ability to decide for themselves whether they wanted to be slave or free. While Nebraska was decidedly a free state from the start, pro and anti-slavery forces traveled to Kansas to try and influence the decision. Open fighting broke out in the territory causing it to be known as Bleeding Kansas. Its fate would not be decided until 1861 when it would enter the union as a free state. The second controversial act was the Fugitive Slave Act which gave slave owners great latitude in traveling north to capture any escaped slaves. This act was hugely unpopular with both abolitionists and more moderate anti-slavery forces in the north. Abraham Lincolns Election Leads to Secession By 1860 the conflict between northern and southern interests had grown so strong that when Abraham Lincoln was elected president South Carolina became the first state to break offÃ from the Union and form its own country. Ten more states would follow with secession: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. On February 9, 1861, the Confederate States of America was formed with Jefferson Davis as its president. The Civil War Begins Abraham LincolnÃ was inaugurated as president in March 1861. On April 12, Confederate forces led by General P.T. Beauregard openedÃ fire on Fort Sumter whichÃ was a federally held fort inÃ South Carolina. This began the American Civil War. TheÃ Civil WarÃ lasted from 1861 until 1865. During this time, over 600,000 soldiers representing both sides were killed either by battle deaths or disease. Many, many more were wounded with estimates of more than 1/10th of all soldiers being wounded. Both the north and the south experienced major victories and defeats. However, by September 1864 with the taking of Atlanta, the North had gained the upper hand and the war would officially end on April 9, 1865. The Aftermath of the Civil War The beginning of the end for the Confederacy was with General Robert E. Lees unconditional surrender at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865.Ã Confederate General Robert E. LeeÃ surrendered theÃ Army of Northern VirginiaÃ to Union GeneralÃ Ulysses S. Grant. However, skirmishes and small battles continued to occur until the last general, Native American Stand Watie, surrendered on June 23, 1865. PresidentÃ Abraham LincolnÃ wanted to institute a liberal system of Reconstructing the South. However, his vision ofÃ ReconstructionÃ was not to become reality afterÃ Abraham Lincolns assassinationÃ on April 14, 1865. TheÃ Radical RepublicansÃ wanted to deal harshly with the South. Military rule was instituted untilÃ Rutherford B. HayesÃ officially ended Reconstruction in 1876. The Civil War was a watershed event in the United States. The individual states after years of reconstruction would end up joined together in a stronger union. No longer would questionsÃ concerning secessionÃ or nullification be argued by individual states. Most importantly, the war officially ended slavery.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The purpose of this essay is to explore social work theory and practice. The essay is based on a scenario of a father (Mathew), who after many years of caring for his disabled son (David), and having suffered a stroke attack an year ago, finds he is struggling to care for himself or the son. In relation to working with the elderly, the essay will discuss the roles of a social worker, the practice of empowerment, possible ethical dilemmas and an anti-oppressive practice. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Work and Empowerment Assignment or any similar topic only for you Order Now The type of agency chosen for this essay is Learning Disability Partnership (LPD) in Cambridgeshire. LPD is an organisation, which includes multi-disciplinary teams of Social Care Services and Health professionals. LPD dedicates services which help learning disabled people lead normal lives and life in abundance. Fully aware of the strain and stress brought on by caring, LPD tries to provide services which help people with learning disabilities, and their carers, to cope with these pressures. The diversity of social work roles in this organisation includes advocacy, direct change agent and executive. These roles can be used singly, or as a combination of two roles. The role of advocacy is about people speaking up for themselves directly or indirectly (Beckett, 2006: 9). Despite having communication problems, and assumning a positive mental capacity rationale on David, a social worker may advocate for David by providing specialist communication equipment that enable him to directly communicate without undue influence by his father. Similarly, in the best interests of David and Matthew advocacy is met through negotiations for services and resources within the agency or through multi-disiplinary teams, this is a mixed role of a negotiator and a co-ordinator. The social worker is obliged to assess the needs of Matthew and David for community care services and implement services accordingly, role of a care manager. Simultaneously, eligibility criteria are checked (role of a researcher) after which costs and services availability are checked before commissioning resources. For effectiveness, a social worker must have sufficient knowledge, skills and values to conduct good professional practice. Empowerment means Ã¢â¬Å"working in a way aimed at increasing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of power and control over their livesÃ¢â¬ (Beckett, 2006:126). The British Association of Social Workers (BASW) includes in their definition of social work the promotion of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ social changeÃ¢â¬ ¦ and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Ã¢â¬ (Thompson 2001) cites empowerment as an ongoing Ã¢â¬Å"processÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"goalÃ¢â¬ that takes a long time. Cooper (2000:15) cites the four major principles of empowerment as Ã¢â¬Å"entitlement which include legislation, rights and policies; social model which looks at social, economic and culture; needs-led assessment which looks at wants in life; and promotion of choice and control which moves institutionalisation to independent livingÃ¢â¬ ¦ In view of this topicÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity I shall address each principle briefly. In terms of entitlement law, rights and policies offer guidance and support, good example been the 1990 Community Care Act and the Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act 1970 which places a duty and requirement on local authority to provide services, resources and funding for services and resources for the needy people in the community (Brammer, 2003:304). To empower David and Matthew rights to live in own home entitlement services like home carer provide personal care and help with shopping. David may also be entitled to practical home assistance to improve on safety and mobility. However, despite been eligible for service, due to limited resources services may not be easily implemented by local authority. The main objective of needÃ¢â¬â¢s led assessment is to concentrate more on individual needs and preferences rather than the services available. Needs determine the level of assessment required based mainly on empowerment and choice (Parker, Bradley, 2007). Contrary, defining the meaning of Ã¢â¬ËneedÃ¢â¬â¢ inevitably leads to procedural bias and restriction of services due to financial constraints. If the service user satisfies the local authorities eligibility criteria then they have a legal duty to provide the necessary assistance. For example needs for both Matthew and David vary and might change over time. MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective might be need of rehabilitation and home help to enhance his physical well being whilst DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s needs might be gradual introduction to socialisation and communication needs. Choices for independence targets services for persons at risk for institutionalisation. The Kantanian approach of individualisation (rights and respect for David and Matthew to be treated with personal differences) and user-self-determination (liberty to make informed choices or decisions) promote choice and independence (Banks, 2003:31). Direct Payments, supports self-directed care. This enables David and Matthew to recruit, organise and pay for their own services, enabling them to exercise choice and control over their lives. The campaign for real choice by guardian newspaper quotes that Ã¢â¬Å"the growth of direct payments is causing for celebration, alongside pilot schemes for individual budgets which give disabled people more independenceÃ¢â¬ (www. guardian. co. uk). Social model is concerned with experiences of vulnerable people at a risk of oppression and social devaluation, seeking to reserve vulnerability. Medical terms have been used to normalise people, for examples labelling David as severe learning disabled and Matthew as suffering from stroke is disabling in itself, and leads to total loss of rights. However these terms are used to check threshold criteria for assessment of their needs enabling empowerment. Consequently, on meeting the criteria, local authority must facilities for services, which at this point must be pointed out that they may not necessarily be needs led as intended, but resource led due to limited resources. Simultaneously, this leads to David and Matthew depending on the state welfare instead of encouraging independence and active participation (Oliver, 1996:25). Similarly, choices encourage empowerment. David expressing his wish to stay at home proves that his mental capacity is able to receive, retain and make decisions. (Adams, Dominelli and Payne 2002:196) states capacity and ability to act on decisions brings about equality, however, this supports choice making more than services that best suits David. Possible ethical dilemmas encountered include: Choice and capacity: Because of communication problems with Matthew his dad may have to translate his thoughts expressed. Dilemma occurs as dadÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretations may not be accurate with the MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s needs; this may lead to a social worker implementing wrong services. Similarly wrong services may also be offered if in the past Matthew has had little or no experience of choosing. Care and control imposed due to limited resources, social workers are obligated to evaluate David and Matthew against other service users who are in need. Following the utilitarian approach, the dilemma here is whose needs outweigh the other? On what orders would these needs be prioritised? If David and MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s priority are of low, then resources will be allocated to those in most significant risk. Consequently lead to two immoral issues: (a) Societal distrust in social work profession as most people fear being selected for sacrifice despite their needs, (b) DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s and MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s health might get worse as they have to wait a long time for care packages to be implemented. Empowerment process shifts power away from social workers and given to service users. This reliance to create the conditions for empowerment and identify eligible for empowerment would appear to contradict this intended shift of power. Conflict of interest arises on who the primary client is. Once a referral has been made, a social worker will purposely be going in to assess whoever is in need. However it soon comes to light that both the service user and the carer are in need, torn between two people in need a social worker therefore has to work with the whole family creating conflict of interest. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 states that: Ã¢â¬Å"a person must be assumed to have capacity unless it is established that he lacks capacityÃ¢â¬ . In line with this, dilemma occurs on how to assess capacity and to what extend would capacity be measurable? A social worker is obliged to make a value judgmental call, and if the wrong move is made then the consequences lie with the social worker. To overcome these dilemmas awareness training and anti discriminatory practice would give a balance. From learnt theories it is evident that some social workers might have limited resources and lack of awareness. If a social worker is not aware or informed of these factors, then they will not be able to achieve empowering practice and that they will find their practice may revolve more around issues of empowerment and control are evidently forgetting service users and carers self-determination. Conclusively, Social workers are employed in varied social settings necessitating diversity of social work roles. Empowerment enriches and enhances human suffering, therefore should always be linked with anti-discrimination. The topic of empowerment is very broad, it not only requires technical competence but also qualities of integrity, genuiness and self-awareness. How to cite Social Work and Empowerment Assignment, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: What Is The Important Challenge For All Industrialized? Answer: Introducation In 21st Century, the most important challenge for all industrialized countries is to ensure that their workers are leading healthy and stress free life. In other words, work should not result in illness to the workers or any injured provision must not be there. It must be noted that poor workplace situations not only adversely affects the workers, but they also affect the the workplace as well as community. There are number of injuries or illnesses which are not recognized by employers, and these minor issues results in major consequences. In New South Wales (NSW), all workers are protected by occupational health and safety laws (OHS) such as full-time workers, part-time workers, permanent workers, and temporary and casual workers. These laws are passed by parliament of NSW. Under OHS laws, duty is imposed on employer to ensure health and safety of their workers and employees while they are working, and also of those who are not their employees at the place of work. However, Work cover NSW is responsible to manage the State's workplace safety, injury management, and compensation system of workers. This work cover also has power to prosecute the employers who fail to fulfill this duty. Acts of parliament: the most important Act which covers all the matters related to health and safety of workers in NSW is the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000, and this Act came into force from September 2001. It must be noted that this Act states the various requirements related to health, safety and welfare of the workers in NSW, and this act also covers self-employed people as well as employers and employees. However, this act is repealed by Work Health and Safety Act 2011. Code of practice: the main aim of this code is to provide practically guidance for the purpose of achieving standard related to health, safety, and welfare in particular area of work. These codes are published by Government Gazette. There are number of times when Codes of practice are considered in regulations, and in these situations they have the same legal force as the regulations itself. Otherwise, Codes of practice should be followed unless any alternative course of action is introduced for the purpose of achieving better result in this area. Code of Practice does not replace any laws stated by WHS, but these codes are used to understand the obligations stated by Act in easier way. However, these codes are used by inspector while he issuing notice related to improvement or prohibition. It must be noted that codes of practice under the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, are admissible in Court proceedings. Courts consider the Court of practice as evidence to identify the hazard, risk or control, and they are rely on it for the purpose of determining the practices which are reasonable in nature in those situations to which this code relates. Codes of practice are not mandatory in nature and it is recognized by government that there are number of better ways to achieving the required work health and safety outcomes. Therefore, it is considered that many other methods can also be used for achieving the higher or equal standards related health and safety of workers. Therefore it is clear that these codes are only considered as guidance material related to safe work in Australia for achieving the standards under WHS laws (Safe work NSW, n.d.). Work Health and Safety Act 2011 No 10: this Act is introduced for the purpose of securing the health, safety and welfare of workers at workplace, and it is also introduced to repeal the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000. Some main objects of this Act are to provide framework which is balanced and nationally consistent for the purpose of ensuring the health and safety of workers, and these objects are stated below: Provide protection to workers and other persons also against any harm relates to their health, safety, and welfare by minimizing the risk rose from work, and any specified types of substances or plant. This Act provides fair and effective representation related to workplace, and also ensures consultation, co-operation and solving any issue related to health and safety workers. This Act plays important role in both union and employer organizations for the purpose of ensuring health and safety practices at workplace, and it also assists the persons in conducting businesses or undertakings to achieve work environment which is healthier and safer. This Act promotes the advice promotion, information, education, and training related to health and safety of workers. Through this Act government ensures secure and effective compliance of provisions of this Act and enforcement measures (Safe work NSW, n.d.; Work Health and Safety Act 2011 ). These acts establish both compensation system for workers as well as workplace injury management system, and it provides: Treatment which is prompt in nature and related to injuries at workplace. It also manages these injuries in effective and proactive manner. These acts provide rehabilitation related to medical and vocational for these injuries. It also supports the workers by income during their incapacity. The system also creates compensation system for workers which must be fair, affordable and financially-viable, and it is necessary that this compensation system ensures contributions from their employers and they are commensurate with the risk faced by them in their industry. It must be noted that WHS laws requires that employers and other parties at workplace must consult and cooperate for the purpose of managing risk at workplace, and ensure health and safety of their workers and other also who might have risk from the work. In NSW, principles of WHS law consists of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, and these principles are supported by Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011. However, this Act is based on the model of WHS legislation which is developed by the Safe Work Australia after consulting with the states and territories, and it applies in all the workplaces of NSW including mines. In NSW, two regulators are present which regulates the principles of WHS that is NSW Department of Industry, Resources and Energy which regulates the mining industry, and Safe Work NSW regulates the other workplace which is formally known as WorkCover. Health and safety duties: this Act broadened the range of people who have a duty of care towards the other people, and additionally it includes duty of employers and business undertakings to manage the risk conducting from their business and this duty is also imposed on those parties who are contributing in the successful management of workplace risks such designers, manufacturers, importers, and equipment suppliers. It must be noted that duty holders must be practicable and try to minimize the risk related to health and life of employees (Lexis-Nexis). PCBUs duties: usually PCBUs duties are similar to the duties of employers under the previous legislation such as PCBU are under obligation to minimize the risk related to health and safety of workers including employees, contractors, and any other person related to work. It is necessary to note that if any two persons share the same duties then they must consult, co-operate, and co-ordinate with each other activities for the purpose of ensuring better results. Officers duty: officer of the company is the person who makes or participates in decision makings, and decisions made by him affects substantially whole or substantial part of the business. Therefore, officer of the company is under obligation to exercise due diligence while taking their decisions and also ensures that organizations are compliance with the law. Workers Duty: this Act not only imposed duties on employers of the organization, but also imposed duties on workers, contractors, and other volunteers. They are under obligation to ensure their own safety and health by complying with the reasonable instructions or policies and procedures which are related to their safety (MJA, n.d.). Explosives Act: this Act is applicable on employer and businesses which are indulged in manufacturing, imports, stores, transports, supplies, handles or used any explosive substance or dangerous substance. For them it is necessary that they complied with this act for the purpose of ensuring health and safety of your workers (Safe work NSW, n.d.). Rural Workers Accommodation Act: This act is applicable if employer has workers who need to live at the work premises for more than 24 hours such as at agricultural or pastoral premises, then in such case employer is liable to provide suitable accommodation for them (Safe work NSW, n.d.). Penalties and fines in case of breach: In NSW, Work Cover has power to initiate inspections, investigations, and compliance audits, and it also has power to issue letter of caution which warns the organization that WHS breach has been detected. Inspectors also has power to issue notice related to improvement or prohibition if they believe that organization or employers are breaching the provisions of the Act or might breach the provisions of the Act. Improvement notice requires that recipient of the notice to remedy the contravention and its causes, and also prevent the contraventions from occurring or reoccurring. However, this notice may set out the methods through which employer or business organization can remedy the contraventions and this letter also state the deadline (Safe Work, n.d.). Inspector can also issue prohibition notice in case that inspector believes that any situation at workplace cause serious WHS risk, and require immediate action for same. This notice is generally applied on employer till the inspector is satisfied that the hazard or risk is rectified or removed, and till that time performance related to that work will be prohibited. A prohibition notice states the methods for remedying that situation, and in case employer does not complying with the same then regulator can take reasonable action to remedy that situation after giving reasonable notice. However, non-disturbance notice can also be issued by inspector for the purpose of preventing disturbance at site on which such notified incident occurred. However, it must be noted that compliance of these requirements gets the support of court injunctions. Fines: following maximum penalties are provided by WHS Act in case of breach, and these penalties are divided on the basis of category of offense complied by employer or business: Category 1 offence- breach under category 1 is considered as most serious breach, and in this it is considered that person at default put the other person to the risk of death or injury. In this category penalty for corporations is $ 3 million, for individual and public officers it is $600,000 and/or five years imprisonment, and for individual workers it is $300,000 and/or five years imprisonment. Category 2 offence- breaches under category 2 is considered as person failed to comply with the duty related to health and safety which put other person at risk of death. In this category penalty for corporations is $ 1.5 million, for individual and public officers it is $300,000, and for individual workers it is $150,000. Category 3 offence- breaches under category 3 is considered as person failed to comply with the duty related to health and safety. In this category penalty for corporations is $ 500000, for individual and public officers it is $100,000, and for individual workers it is $ 50,000 (Workplace OHS, n.d.). References: Safe work NSW. Codes of Practice. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/codes-of-practice. Safe work NSW. Rural Workers Accommodation Act. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/rural-workers-accommodation-act. Safe work NSW. Work Health and Safety Act 2011. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/work-health-and-safety-legislation. Safe work NSW. Explosives Act. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/explosives-act. Safe work NSW. Workers Compensation Legislation. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/law-and-policy/legislation-and-codes/workers-compensation-legislation. Work Health And Safety Act 2011 - sect 3. Work Health and Safety Act 2011 No 10. Workplace OHS. WHS penalties NSW. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://workplaceohs.com.au/legislation/nsw-legislation/penalties-nsw. MJA. Workplace safety goes national. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.mja.com.au/careers/196/6/workplace-safety-goes-national. Lexis-Nexis. Employment and Work Health and Safety Law Collection. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.lexisnexis.com.au/en-au/products/employment-and-whs.page. Safe Work. Compliance policy and prosecution guidelines. Retrieved on 14th May 2017 from: https://www.safework.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/50160/compliance_policy_prosecution_guidelines_2012_4437.p